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Flexo Sustainable : Earth Day 2013
that evaluations of hazardous effects are consistent across manufacturers, and that labels and SDSs are more accurate as a result • Labels: Chemical manufacturers and importers will be required to provide a label that includes a harmonized signal word, pictogram, and hazard statement for each hazard class and category. • SDSs: Will now have a specified 16-section format The GHS does not include harmonized training provisions, but recognizes that training is essential to an effective hazard communication approach. The revised HCS requires that workers be re- trained within two years of the publication of the final rule to facilitate recognition and understanding of the new labels and SDSs. For a side-by-side comparison of the current HCS and the final revised HCS please see OSHA’s hazard communication safety and health topics webpage at: http://www.osha.gov/ dsg/hazcom/index.html CHEMICAL HAZARD EVALUATION Under both the current HCS and the revised HCS, an eval- uation of chemical hazards must be performed considering the available scientific evidence concerning such hazards. The hazard classification approach in the revised HCS. It has specific criteria for each health and physical hazard, along with detailed instructions for hazard evaluation and determina- tions as to whether mixtures or substances are covered. It also establishes both hazard classes and hazard categories—for most of the effects, the classes are divided into categories that reflect the relative severity of the effect. This new approach provides additional information that can be related to the appropriate response to address the hazard. OSHA has included the general provisions for hazard classification and added extensive appendixes that address the criteria for each health or physical effect. LABELING Under the revised HCS, once the hazard classification is completed, the standard specifies what information is to be provided for each hazard class and category. Labels will require the following elements: Pictograms: A symbol plus other graphic elements, such as a border, background pattern, or color that is intended to convey specific information about the hazards of a chemical. Each pictogram consists of a different symbol on a white background within a red square frame set on a point (i.e . a red diamond). There are nine pictograms under the GHS. Signal Words: A single word used to indicate the relative level of severity of hazard and alert the reader to a potential hazard on the label. The signal words used are “danger” and “ warning.” “ Danger” is used for the more severe hazards, while “ warning” is used for less severe hazards. Hazard Statement: A statement assigned to a hazard class and category that describes the nature of the hazard(s) of a chemical, including, where appropriate, the degree of hazard. Precautionary Statement: A phrase that describes recommended measures to be taken to minimize or prevent adverse effects resulting from exposure to a hazardous chemical, or its improper storage or handling. In the revised HCS, OSHA is lifting the stay on enforcement regarding the provision to update labels when new informa- tion on hazards becomes available. Chemical manufactur- ers, importers, distributors or employers who become newly aware of any significant information regarding the hazards of a chemical shall revise the labels for the chemical within six months of becoming aware of the new information and shall ensure that labels on containers of hazardous chemicals, shipped after that time, contain the new information. If the chemical is not currently produced or imported, the chemi- cal manufacturer, importer, distributor, or employer shall add the information to the label before the chemical is shipped or introduced into the workplace again. The current standard provides employers with flexibility regarding the type of system to be used in their workplaces and OSHA has retained that flexibility in the revised HCS. Employers may choose to label workplace containers either with the same label that would be on shipped containers for the chemical under the revised rule, or with label alternatives that meet the requirements for the standard. Alternative label- ing systems, such as the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 704 Hazard Rating and the Hazardous Material Infor- mation System (HMIS), are permitted for workplace contain- ers. However, the information supplied on these labels must be consistent with the revised HCS, e.g., no conflicting hazard warnings or pictograms. Information required on the SDS will remain essentially the same as that in the current standard. The current HCS indicates what information has to be included on an SDS but does not specify a format for presentation or order of informa- tion. The revised HCS requires that the information on the SDS is presented using consistent headings in a specified sequence. The final rule indicates the headings of information to be included on the SDS and the order in which they are to be ACRONYMS: ACGIH – American Conference of Government Indus- trial Hygienists ANSI – American National Standards Institute CFR – Code of Federal Regulations GHS – Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals HCS – Hazard Communication Standard HMIS – Hazardous Material Information System IARC – International Agency for Research on Cancer MSDS – Material Safety Data Sheet NFPA – National Fire Protection Association NTP – National Toxicology Program OSHA – Occupational Safety & Health Administration PEL – Permissible Exposure Limit SDS – Safety Data Sheet TLV – Threshold Limit Values 8 Sustainable FLEXO earth day 2013 www.flexomag.com