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Flexo Sustainable : Fall 2011
considered optional calculations for a facility ’s carbon foot- print and outside of its “corporate footprint.” While companies are getting used to reporting direct emissions, accounting for Scope 3 emissions remain unclear. As with all carbon foot- print calculations, should a facility attempt to calculate Scope 3 emissions, there must be a consistent approach for carbon accounting and documentation. The allocation of the emissions in Scope 3 is different. But, in many cases, conversion factors that have been provided in previous parts of this series for other scopes can be used. For example, in some situations, such as carbon footprint of vehicles, mileage may be the easier variable to monitor for commuting calculations in Scope 3, as opposed to gasoline used by company vehicles in Scope 1. Therefore, this article provides additional conversion factors that can be utilized. Transmission & DisTribuTion Losses of eLecTriciTy Some sources of information include transmission and distribution (T&D) losses of electricity in Scope 2, while others suggest reporting in Scope 3. As electrical transmission lines span hundreds of miles, there is energy loss. The longer the transmission line, the more energy will be lost to the resis- tance inherent in the line material. empLoyee TraveL & commuTing The Carbon Fund summarizes information on emissions from transportation sources on its webpage http://www. carbonfund.org/site/pages/carbon_calculators/category/As- sumptions as follows: Car Travel: Unleaded gasoline has 8.91 kg (19.643 lbs) of CO2 per gallon. By dividing number of miles driven by miles per gallon, the number of gallons of gasoline consumed annually can be calculated. Multiply that number by 8.91 and divide by 1,000 to get metric tons of CO2. (Source: US DOE 1605(b) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, http:// www.eia.gov/oiaf/1605/coefficients.html ) Automobiles fuel efficiency (miles per gallon-mpg) varies widely. It is useful to have an idea of a car’s fuel economy. If not, for reference, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the average fuel economy for cars sold in the United States in 2005 is about 25.2 mpg, while the aver- age for all cars was 20.3 mpg. 14 Sustainable FLEXO fall 2011 www.flexography.org
Spring Summer 2009
Year End 2011