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Flexo Sustainable : Fall 2011
types of fossil fuels and cleaner energy sources (http://www. epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-and-you/how-clean.html). Of the most common fossil fuels used, coal combustion results in greater amounts of CO2 emissions per unit of electricity generated while oil produces less and natural gas produces the least. The U.S . Environmental Protection Agency (U.S . EPA) posts regional conversion factors for each of the three GHGs being emitted by utilities. The agency ’s eGrid emission factors are derived, based on the mix of electricity fuel sources used in a particular region, and are available online at http://www. epa.gov/cleanenergy/documents/egridzips/eGRID2010V1_1_ year07_GHGOutputrates.pdf. These factors are then included in the calculation of total carbon emission (CO2 and CO2e) in metric tons. Although many companies use eGRID emission factors, they are expressed regionally and the most recent reports available online are three years old. More accurate information may be available from the local utility and may be indicated right on the utility bill. Also, be aware that, eGRID reports output of CO2 in lbs/ MWh and output of CH4 and N2O in lbs/GWh (1 GWh = 1,000 MWh = 1,000 ,000 kWh). All emission factors must be converted to lbs/kWh in these equations. It cannot be overstressed that when doing any of these cal- culations, the sources of the emission factors must be docu- mented. Otherwise, it will be impossible to make comparisons from year-to-year or between facilities with any confidence. The fuel sources of your local utility will have a significant impact on the conversion factors and resultant total emissions for any particular location. Scope 3 emiSSionS Scope 3 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions come from indirect sources not owned or directly controlled by an entity, but related to the entity ’s activities. They are often vaguely defined. Scope 3 emissions include transmission and distribu- tion (T&D) losses associated with purchased electricity, em- ployee travel and commuting, contracted solid waste dispos- al, and contracted wastewater treatment. Additional sources that are often considered optional, but the US Environmental Protection Agency (U.S . EPA) is considering accounting for in its inventory include vendor supply chains, delivery services, outsourced activities, and site remediation activities. The boundaries of Scope 3 emissions are widespread, making them difficult to define and calculate. The Scope 3 inventory depends on how much responsibility the facility assumes. As a result, at this time, Scope 3 emissions are often www.flexography.org Fall 2011 Sustainable FLEXO 13
Spring Summer 2009
Year End 2011