by clicking the arrows at the side of the page, or by using the toolbar.
by clicking anywhere on the page.
by dragging the page around when zoomed in.
by clicking anywhere on the page when zoomed in.
web sites or send emails by clicking on hyperlinks.
Email this page to a friend
Search this issue
Index - jump to page or section
Archive - view past issues
Flexo Sustainable : Fall 2011
For a typical flexographic printing facility, Scope 1 emis- sions would include, but are not limited to: • Emergency generators. • Gas boilers, process dryers and water heaters. • Air pollution control devices. • Company-owned or leased vehicles, power landscape equipment. • Propane forklifts and landscaping equipment. • Refrigerants (HFCs). • CO2 used in some electron-beam coating lines. Fuel Type Carbon (percent) Density (lb/gal) Emission Factor (lb/103 gal) No. 1 Kerosene 86.25 6.88 21,500 No. 2 87.25 7.05 22,300 Low Sulfur No. 6 87.26 7.88 25,000 High Sulfur No. 6 85.14 7.88 24,400 Combustion Source Emission Factor (lb CO2 /gal propane) Boilers 12.40 - 12.50 Forklifts 12.70 Refrigerant Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) GWP HFC-23 12,000 HFC-32 550 HFC-125 3,400 HFC-134a 1,300 HFC-143a 4,300 HFC-152a 120 HFC-23 12,000 HFC-32 550 HFC-125 3,400 HFC-134a 1,300 HFC-143a 4,300 HFC-152a 120 SCOPE 2 -- INDIRECT EMISSIONS Scope 2 emissions are from the generation of purchased electricity that is consumed in owned or controlled equipment or operations. For any company, purchased electricity repre- sents one of the largest sources of GHG emissions and the most significant opportunity to reduce these emissions. Ac- counting for Scope 2 emissions allows companies to assess the risks and opportunities associated with changing electric- ity and GHG emissions costs. Another important reason for companies to track these emissions is that the information may be needed for some GHG programs. Companies can reduce their use of electricity by investing in energy efficient technologies and energy conservation. Additionally, emerging green power markets provide oppor- tunities for some companies to switch to less GHG intensive on-site sources of electricity. Companies can also install an efficient on site co-generation plant, particularly if it replaces the purchase of more GHG intensive electricity from the grid or electricity supplier. SCOPE 3 -- OPTIONAL EMISSIONS Scope 3 includes all indirect emissions not covered in Scope 2. Upstream and downstream emissions; emissions resulting from the extraction and production of purchased materials and fuels; transport related activities in vehicles not owned or controlled by the entity; use of sold products and services; outsourced activities; recycling of used products, waste disposal, etc. Transport Emission Factor kg CO2e per ton-mile Truck 0.297910 Rail 0.025428 Water Craft 0.485201 Aircraft 1.557095 For a typical flexographic printing facility, Scope 3 emis- sions might include: • Product materials produced by suppliers (plates, cylin- ders, substrate, ink, etc.). • Waste disposal. • Employee commuting. • Business travel. When calculating its carbon footprint, a company must first determine to what level or scope the calculations will be made and then compile the associated data. Once the boundaries are selected, determine what can be operational- ly controlled, so that they can be included in the calculations. Consistent methodology is paramount to compare changes over time. The three basic steps to determining total CO2 emissions from a facility are list, convert and add. 1. List: List each of the gases to be quantified and deter- mine the emissions of each. For example, 1,000 kilo- grams of CO2 may be emitted along with 100 grams of methane (CH4) and 50 grams of nitrous oxide (N2O). 2. Convert: Convert the non-CO2 emissions to CO2e emis- sions by multiplying by their GWP which indicates the relationship between CO2 emissions to those of various other non-CO2 greenhouse gases. 3. Add: Add the CO2 emissions to the resulting equiva- lencies of the other pollutants. Make sure to convert all emissions to either kilograms or metric tons before 10 Sustainable FLEXO FALL 2011 www.flexography.org
Spring Summer 2009
Year End 2011