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Flexo Sustainable : Fall 2011
Also may be calculated in a flexo plant as a result of electricity purchased. • Nitrous oxide (N2O) - Typically, used for its anesthetic and analgesic effects, as well as being used as an oxidizer in rocketry and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. In flexo, also generated as a result of the use of air pollution control devices, such as catalytic oxidizers or regenerative thermal oxidizers. • Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) - Used in the electrical industry as a gaseous dielectric medium for high-voltage (35 kV and above) circuit breakers, switchgear, and other elec- trical equipment. Also employed as a contrast agent for ultrasound imaging. • Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) - Used in refrigeration units. • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) - Used in refrigeration units. Within a printing facility, some of the major sources of emissions which may be included in a carbon footprint calculation are: • Purchased energy (upstream and transmission losses). • On-site combustion of fuels. • Company owned or leased vehicles. • Transport of finished product. • Production of packaging materials. • Production of plates. • Employees commuting. • Production of cleaning agents. • Production of fuels (upstream). • Production of inks and varnishes. • Transport of raw materials. • Production of substrate. GHG emissions are typically expressed as metric tons of CO2. GHGs that are not CO2 are expressed as a CO2-equiv- alent or CO2e. To make this conversion, the global warming potential (GWP) of the gases must be considered. The CO2e describes, for a given mixture and amount of GHG, the amount of CO2 that would have the same GWP, when mea- sured over a specified timescale (a 100-year standard). GWP values are applied to units of mass (e.g., kilograms, pounds, metric tons, etc.), not to units of volume (e.g., cubic meters, cubic feet, liters). CO2e emissions are calculated by multiplying the mass of the gas by its GWP value. The resulting emissions are not labeled as CO2, but as CO2e. According to the Intergovern- mental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), GWPs typically have an uncertainty of roughly ±35 percent, though some GWPs have greater uncertainty than others. Currently, there is no government mandatory standard for measuring GHG emissions produced in the United States; however, there is an international, voluntary standard the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol), which is used by many worldwide. The GHG Protocol divides the types of emis- sion sources of GHGs into three "scopes": Scope 1 - Direct emissions: Onsite combustion and mobile sources Scope 2 - Indirect emissions: Purchased electricity Scope 3 - Optional Emissions: Product transport, employee business travel and employee commuting Although the GHG Protocol has defined the various scopes as listed below, there is often confusion as to what is included in each set of calculations. It is important for the facility to keep detailed documentation as to what emissions are included and any conversion factors that are used to ensure consistency for making comparisons over time or with other facilities. SCOPE 1 - DIRECT EMISSIONS GHG emissions from sources they own or control are considered as Scope 1. Direct GHG emissions are principally the result of the following types of activities undertaken by the company: • Generation of electricity, heat or steam. These emissions result from combustion of fuels in stationary sources (e.g., boilers, furnaces, turbines and oxidizers). • Physical or chemical processing. Most of these emissions result from manufacture or processing of chemicals and materials. • Transportation of materials, products, waste, and employ- ees. These emissions result from the combustion of fuels in company owned/controlled mobile combustion sources (e.g., trucks, trains, ships, airplanes, buses, and cars). • Fugitive emissions. These emissions result from intention- al or unintentional releases (e.g., equipment leaks from joints, seals, packing, and gaskets); methane emissions from coal mines and venting; CO2; hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) emissions during the use of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; and methane leakages from gas transport. TABLE 1. Scope 1 Direct GHG Emission Sources Stationary combustion To produce electricity, steam, heat or power using equipment in a fixed location. Mobile combustion Fuels used in transportation e.g. cars, trucks, marine, aviation; and emissions from non-road equipment such as equipment used in construction, agriculture and forestry. Physical & chemical processes Other than fuel combustion (e.g. the manufacture of cement, aluminum, adipic acid, ammonia etc.). Fugitive sources Releases for the production, processing, transmission, storage, and use of fuels and other substances that do not pass through a stack, chimney, vent exhaust pipe or other functionally-equivalent opening (such as releases of sulfur hexafluoride from electrical equipment; hydrofluorocarbon releases during the use of refrigeration and air condition equipment; and methane leakage from natural gas transport. Sources: The GHG Protocol http://www.ghgprotocol.org; The Climate Registry http://www. theclimateregistry.org/; and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ emissions/ www.flexography.org FALL 2011 Sustainable FLEXO 9
Spring Summer 2009
Year End 2011